By Ishiguro M., Sakamoto Y.
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Decisions are expected to be made in an integrated fashion, considering traditional engineering and PRA risk information, and may be based on qualitative factors as well as quantitative analyses and information . 174. These principles are: 18 1 Safety Goals and Risk-informed Decision Making 1) The proposed change meets the current regulations unless otherwise stated. 2) The proposed change is consistent with the defense-in-depth philosophy. 3) The proposed change maintains suﬃcient safety margins.
Each of these pairs denotes (N, f ). This shows that N fatalities occur with frequency f . 3 happen to be arranged in an ascending order of fatalities. Thus, the frequency FNE of 10 or more fatalities can be calculated as a sum of the four frequencies fNE, fNW, fSW and fSE. The frequency is called an excess frequency. The remaining three excess frequencies can be calculated similarly. The last FSE is the frequency of 40 or more fatalities and equals the frequency of 40 fatalities because this is the maximum number.
IEC 61508 contains detailed descriptions about the functional safety systems . The functional safety system consists of 1) monitor, 2) judge, 3) actuator, 4) power source, 5) piping and wiring, etc. This is similar to a human. In the process industries, the functional safety system is called a safety-instrumented systems (SIS) . The present day machine industries take these systems for granted. Operations of functional safety system include: 1) potentially hazardous movements of a machine are shut down or reversed when an emergency button is actuated, 2) potentially hazardous movements are prevented when the safety guard covering a machine is opened or when an approach of a worker is detected , 3) overspeed is detected and the machine is made to stop, 4) prestart warning device alarms a worker that the machine is about to start when the waiting time has elapsed .
A Bayesian approach to binary response curve estimation by Ishiguro M., Sakamoto Y.