By Jaegwon Kim, Visit Amazon's Ernest Sosa Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Ernest Sosa, , Gary S. Rosenkrantz

ISBN-10: 1405152982

ISBN-13: 9781405152983

Absolutely prolonged and revised, A better half to Metaphysics 2d Edition incorporates a part of particular evaluate essays from well known metaphysicians, and the addition of greater than 30 new encyclopedic entries, taking the variety of entries to over three hundred.

  • Includes revisions to latest encyclopedic entries
  • Features greater than 30 all-new "A to Z" entries
  • Offers a piece of in-depth, essays from popular metaphysicians
  • Provides the main whole and up to date reference advisor for college students and pros alike

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Agent-causalist libertarians follow Reid in postulating a special kind of causation by an agent or substance that does not consist in causation by events or states of affairs, as is common for forms of causation studied by the sciences. Agent-causalists, such as Chisholm and O’Connor (2000), insist against simple indeterminists that, while free actions may be uncaused by events, they are not uncaused by anything. Free actions are caused by the agents themselves in a sui generis way that is not reducible to causation by states or events of any kinds involving the agent, physical or mental.

In short, if determinism is true, no one can do otherwise than he or she actually does; and if free will requires the power to do otherwise, or alternative possibilities, then no one would have free will. This argument has generated a large critical literature. Each premise and step has been questioned. (For useful summaries of the issues, see van Inwagen, 1983; Fischer, 1994; Ekstrom, 2000; Kapitan, in Kane, 2002). Compatibilists have usually challenged the argument in either of two ways. The first challenge comes from “classical compatibilists” (such as Hobbes, Hume, and 20 Mill) who defend hypothetical or conditional analyses of “can” and “can do otherwise”.

Now, clearly, objects of different ontological categories are individuated, in the ontological sense, in very different ways. For example, mountains and islands are individuated, at least partly, by their geographical locations. qxd 1/12/09 3:04 PM Page 32 i n d i v i duatio n material artefacts are plainly not. However, the claim that every object is individuated might raise in the minds of some critics the worry that an infinite regress is thereby threatened. The thought would be that if every object is individuated and, moreover, is individuated by one or more objects, then there is no end to individuation and so, perhaps, no object at all really gets individuated.

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A Companion to Metaphysics by Jaegwon Kim, Visit Amazon's Ernest Sosa Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Ernest Sosa, , Gary S. Rosenkrantz

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